In The I.S.O. Pollution Exclusion: How Far Does It Go?, insurance expert witness Dale C. Crawford writes:
In responding to judicial interpretations supportive of coverage, the language became quite restrictive. Two key clauses are the definition of pollutants and the exclusionary terms:
“Pollutants” mean any solid, liquid, gaseous or thermal irritant or contaminant, including smoke, vapor, soot, fumes, acids, alkalis, chemicals and waste. Waste includes materials to be recycled, reconditioned, or reclaimed.
This insurance does not apply to:
f. Pollution [Insurance Services Office standard form]
(1) “Bodily Injury” or “Property Damage” which would not have occurred in whole or in part but for the actual, alleged, or threatened discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration, release, or escape of “pollutants” at any time.