Memory chips have been called the crude oil of the twenty-first century. They are used in a wide variety of electronic applications from children’s toys to sophisticated communication satellites. The current generation of memory chip (64 Mb) is capable of storing 3,355 pages of text on a piece of about the size of a dime.
A number of elements are classified as semiconductors including silicon, zinc, and germanium. These elements have the ability to conduct electrical current, and they can be regulated in the amount of their conductivity. Silicon is the most widely used semiconductor material because it is easily obtained.