Patent protection expert witnesses may write reports on software patents, invention patents, patentability requirements, license agreements, and correlated matters. In Startups and Patent Trolls, Santa Clara University Assistant Professor of Law Colleen V. Chien writes:
While patent assertion entities (“PAEs” or patent “trolls”) have received a lot of attention, little of it has focused on the distributional impacts of their demands. The impact of PAEs on startups is crucial, because startups contribute to job creation and innovation, making them potential targets and sources of patents. To assess the impact of trolls on startups, I analyzed a comprehensive database of patent litigations from 2006 to the present, conducted a non-random survey of 223 tech company startups, 79 of which had received a demand, and interviewed nearly twenty entities with relevant knowledge of startup patent issues.