In Insurance 101 – Property – Casualty Basics, the American Insurance Association writes:
The property casualty insurance industry provides protection from risk in two basic areas: protection for physical items, such as houses, personal possessions, cars, commercial buildings, and inventory (property), and protection against legal liability (casualty). Property insurance is a “first-party” coverage for losses related to a policyholder’s own person/property. Casualty (or liability) insurance is a “third-party” coverage for a policyholder’s legal obligations against losses the policyholder may cause to others.
These two basic types of coverage are written for both individuals or families (“personal lines” policies) and businesses (“commercial lines” policies). Personal lines policies include homeowners insurance, renters insurance, and vehicle coverage. For example, homeowners policies cover both fire damage to a house and/or contents, plus legal defense costs and liabilities should a person be injured on the policyholder’s property.
Property insurance expert witnesses may write reports on homeowner’s insurance, auto insurance, and insurance loss claims, among other topics.