In THE PERFECT STORM: The Science Behind Subrogating Catastrophic Flood Losses, hydrology expert witness Richard Van Bruggen writes:
Federal flood insurance was first made available in 1968 through the enactment of the National Flood Insurance Act.4 Prior to this program, affordable private flood insurance was generally not available. Under the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), federally subsidized flood insurance is made available to owners of flood-prone property in participating communities. These participating communities are required to adopt certain minimum floodplain management standards and programs, including restrictions on new developments and designated floodways, a requirement that new structures in the 100-year flood zone be elevated to or above the 100-year flood level5, and a requirement that subdivisions are designed to minimize exposure to flood hazards. For highhazard coastal zones, additional standards are imposed, sometimes including the requirement that buildings be elevated on pilings and that the Base Flood Elevation (BFE) include potential wave heights.