June 30, 2011

Fuels Expert Witness & Attempted Murder Trial

A Pueblo district judge disqualified two expert witnesses in the attempted-murder trial of Robert Bruce, one of whom was an expert in the field of propane gas. District Judge David Crockenberg ruled that the Pueblo, CO, district attorney's office failed to provide notice and share the results of the experts' testing with Bruce's defense team in a timely manner.

Bruce is set to go on trial July 19 for attempting to blow up the home of Pueblo police officer Nathan Pruce on Oct. 6, 2009.

Read more: chieftan.com.

June 29, 2011

Accident Reconstruction Expert Witness Testifies In Death Of Kentucky Officer

Accident reconstruction expert witness Sgt. Billy Richmond testified in the murder trial of Glenn Doneghy, 34, accused of hitting and killing officer Bryan J. Durman April 29, 2010. Richmond, supervisor of the collision reconstruction unit that investigates serious-injury and fatal crashes, explained why a re-enactment of the crash was performed last month — more than a year after the collision.

Several officers who investigated the collision testified in Fayette Circuit Court, KY, about evidence they found linking murder defendant Glenn Doneghy's vehicle to the crash.

Read more: http://www.kentucky.com.

June 28, 2011

Insurance Expert Witnesses & FSOC Nominee

Insurance expert witnesses may write reports and opine on property insurance, homeowner's insurance, and insurance companies. President Obama has nominated an insurance expert to further fill out the new Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC). The White House announced Friday that the president intends to nominate Roy Woodall, a former state insurance commissioner and Treasury Department official, to serve as an insurance expert on the council.

Read more: thehill.com.

June 27, 2011

Medical Expert Witness & Pinnacle Healthcare Facilities

Texas justices seated on the Ninth Court of Appeals recently affirmed a lower court's order rejecting Pinnacle Healthcare's argument that the plaintiffs' medical expert reports are inadequate.

Delores Calvin and Herman Johnson sued The Oaks at Beaumont and one of its doctors in June 2009, alleging their mother died from shock after being given incorrect dosages of anticoagulants.

Read more: setexasrecor.com.

June 25, 2011

Supreme Court On Expert Witness Testimony

In Opinion analysis: New curb on crime lab reports, journalist Lyle Denniston writes:

A closely divided Supreme Court on Thursday continued its pattern of restricting prosecutors’ use of out-of-court statements to get criminal convictions, ruling that a report of a crime lab is valid evidence only if the technician who did the testing or observed it — not a substitute witness — is called to the stand.

Read more: scotusblog.com

June 24, 2011

Trucking Expert Witnesses & NLRB Proposed Rule Changes

Trucking expert witnesses may write reports and testify on federal motor carrier safety regulations, the truck manufacturing industry, qualifications of truck drivers, and related topics. Transport Topics offers trucking and freight transportation news and this week reports:

The National Labor Relations Board has proposed changes to federal rules governing union organizing elections, including limiting the time employers have to fight representation votes, the Wall Street Journal reported Wednesday.

“The proposed amendments are designed to fix flaws in the board’s current procedures that build in unnecessary delays, allow wasteful litigation, and fail to take advantage of modern communication technologies,” a statement on NLRB’s website said.

Read more: ttnews.com.

June 23, 2011

Medical Expert Witnesses & Sweat Lodge Deaths

An Arizona jury convicted a self-help guru Wednesday for the deaths of three clients during a 2009 sweat lodge ceremony that went horribly awry. Medical examiners Drs. Archaius Mosley and Robert Lyon, emergency room physician Dr. Brent Cutshall, the State’s expert witness Dr. Matthew Dickson and defense expert Dr. Ian Paul testified as key medical witnesses in the negligent homicide trial.

Read more: slatestslate.com.

June 22, 2011

Psychiatry Expert Witness Testifies In New Jersey Officer's Trial

Psychiatry expert witness Dr. Gerard Figurelli testified Monday in the defense case of Police Officer Joseph Rios III. Figurelli testified that medical records indicate alleged beating victim Ronnie Holloway suffered from a host of schizophrenic symptoms through the years that included violence while prosecutors argue that Ronnie Hollaway was the victim of the Passaic police officer’s excessive use of force.

Read more: northjersey.com.

June 21, 2011

Pharmacology Expert Witnesses & AndroGel Litigation

U.S. District Judge Thomas Thrash, (ND Georgia) refused to disqualify several experts and attorneys in an antitrust litigation stemming from a patent dispute over AndroGel, a medication used to increase testosterone production. The plaintiffs, direct purchasers or the medication, wish to retain Dr. Bozena Michniak-Kohn and Dr. Howard Maibach as expert witnesses in topical drug delivery.

In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration approved Solvay Pharmaceuticals' application for an exclusive three-year license to sell AndroGel for the treatment of male hypogonadism, a medical condition in which the body fails to produce normal levels of testosterone.

Read more: courthousenews.com.

June 20, 2011

Marketing Strategy Expert Witness On The Global Marketplace Part 1

In Creating a Sales Presence in the Global Marketplace, marketing strategy expert witness Glen Balzer writes:

Companies operating only in their home market or in a limited number of global markets understandably worry about entering a new foreign market. Risks are many and opportunities for problems are enormous. There is an additional risk of taking the corporate eye off the core business and revenue stream. What should a company planning to enter a foreign market do in order to protect itself from failure and improve its chances for success? A company can create an eight-step plan that includes:

1. Properly setting expectations
2. Developing a bank of resources
3. Studying local market norms
4. Hiring a country manager
5. Selecting a manufacturers’ representative
6. Negotiating a representative agreement
7. Preparing for fraud and scandal
8. Incorporating lessons from competitors

Read more: www.neweraconsulting.com.

June 19, 2011

Construction Expert & New York Expressway

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo has called on a national construction expert to lead an independent review of the costly and long-running improvements project on the I-287 Cross Westchester Expressway.

Cuomo on June 8 said Peter M. Lehrer, chairman of Lehrer L.L.C., a leading New York City construction consultant, will work on the project pro bono, with other experts to be retained as needed.

Read more: westfaironline.com.

June 18, 2011

Engineering Expert On Chesapeake Bay Erosion

U.S. Rep. Scott Rigell thinks he might have an answer to the erosion problems that threaten to wash away Tangier Island: anchor old barges along the shoreline, without any cost to taxpayers. The fishing mecca in the middle of the Chesapeake Bay is losing between 4 and 12 feet a year to rising sea levels, exposure to storms, and sinking land. Scott Hardaway, a coastal engineering expert with the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, said the Eastern Shore already has marine vessels acting as breakwaters - concrete ships anchored off Kiptopeke State Park.

Read more: hamptonroads.com.

June 17, 2011

Marketing Expert On Expert Witness Pay Part 1

In EXPERT PAY DISCUSSION, Rosalie Hamilton, Legal Marketing Strategist for Expert Consultants, writes:

My recommendation is to use an agreement that lays out simply and clearly, at a minimum, your rates for review, deposition, court appearance, travel time, and expenses, as well as your required retainer. I also recommend that you include a cancellation policy so you are not left holding an empty bag along with an empty waiting room or office when deposition or court appearances are postponed or cancelled. There should be signature lines for you and the client and dates for both signatures.

In your engagement agreement, you can also choose to spell out your expected payment schedule and other details. You can specify additional elements as venue in case of disagreement, although some experts do not wish to bring up the negative.

Your engagement agreement can be called a Fee Schedule, Litigation Consulting Agreement or Contract, or it can be part of an engagement letter (see examples of engagement agreements in The Expert Witness Marketing Book).

Read more: expertcommunications.com.

June 16, 2011

Homeowner's Insurance Expert Witnesses

Homeowner's insurance expert witnesses may write reports and testify on insurance claims, homeowners liability protection, hazard insurance, and associated areas of expertise. At Missouri Insurance Lawyer Blog, the law firm of Tatlow, Gump, Faiella & Wheelan LLC, write:

Many Missourians have experienced devastating losses as a result of the storms that have ravaged the southern portion of the state in recent weeks. Thousands of people will be filing insurance claims and we want to help make sure those claims are handled properly by explaining a few situations that could happen with your insurance claims. Here are just a few things to take into consideration:

1. Many insurance companies use a property damage estimating software program called Xactimate. Prices in the program are updated on a quarterly basis. When a large storm strikes it is not uncommon for labor and materials prices in the area of the storm to increase, sometimes rapidly. As a result the prices in the Xactimate program may be outdated at the time of the storm because of the sudden increase in prices. Check with your insurer who uses this or similar programs to determine if they have updated their prices to reflect the increase in the prices immediately following the storm. If not, ask that they do so; otherwise your repair estimate may not accurately reflect the exact cost of repairs.

Read more: missouriinsurancelawyerblog.com.

June 14, 2011

Trucking Software Expert Witnesses & ELD Regulations

Trucking software expert witnesses may testify on log book validation, mapping software and more. In Opinion: Across the Great ELD Divide, Billy Woolsey, President Midwest Compliance Inc. writes on ELD regulation:

Large and small carriers increasingly find themselves on opposite sides of a widening gulf when the topic is electronic logging devices — particularly when the issue is whether or not ELDs should be required by government mandate.

Large carriers tend to support the ELD regulation that the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration has proposed. Smaller carriers, however, are less than thrilled by the possibility of such a mandate, unless the devices are required only as the result of a compliance review.

Read more: lmtruck.com.

June 13, 2011

Commercial Liability Policies Expert Witnesses

Commercial liability policies expert witnesses may opine on insurance claims, liability insurance and more. In Court of Appeals Rules on When Late Notice of a Claim Voids Coverage, Michael J. Rust writes:

On April 28, 2011, in Forshee v. Employers Mutual Casualty Company, the Georgia Court of Appeals found that a fact question existed as to whether Employers Mutual received timely notice of a claim arising out of a slip and fall at an insured convenience store. The Court overruled the trial court’s finding that the insured had not provided timely notice and decided that the issue was a factual dispute that a jury must decide. In its opinion, the Court established the standard to be considered by a trial court in a late notice case.

Read more: http://mjr-law.blogspot.com/.

June 13, 2011

Sales Forecasting Expert Witnesses

Sales forecasting expert witnesses may testify on sales promotions, retail sales, sales revenues and more. Referenceforbusiness.com describes three important qualitative forecasting methods: the Delphi technique, scenario writing, and the subject approach.

DELPHI TECHNIQUE.

In the Delphi technique, an attempt is made to develop forecasts through "group consensus." Usually, a panel of experts is asked to respond to a series of questionnaires. The experts, physically separated from and unknown to each other, are asked to respond to an initial questionnaire (a set of questions). Then, a second questionnaire is prepared incorporating information and opinions of the whole group. Each expert is asked to reconsider and to revise his or her initial response to the questions. This process is continued until some degree of consensus among experts is reached. It should be noted that the objective of the Delphi technique is not to produce a single answer at the end. Instead, it attempts to produce a relatively narrow spread of opinions—the range in which opinions of the majority of experts lie.

Read more: www.referenceforbusiness.com.

June 13, 2011

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Expert Witnesses

Federal motor vehicle safety standards expert witnesses may write reports on crashworthiness, truck maintenance, and trucking and transportation rules and regulations. On their website, The O'Connell Law Firm, P.C. writes on dangerous truck drivers:

In late 2010, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) implemented an extensive new program to improve safety in the commercial trucking industry. Known as the Compliance, Safety, Accountability program, the initiative focuses on identifying and sanctioning trucking companies with track records of risky driving in order to prevent future trucking accidents.

The CSA program evaluates trucking companies and keeps track of individual drivers. But, even though individuals are monitored, gaps in the system may allow unsafe truckers to remain behind the wheel.

Read more: coloradoinjuryattorney.net.

June 12, 2011

Insurance Expert Witnesses & Replacement Cost

Insurance expert witnesses may write reports and opine on property insurance, homeowner's insurance, and insurance companies. In the wake of homes destroyed throughout the country, attorneys at Alvarez & Barbara, LLP, explain replacement cost and extended replacement cost:

Unfortunately, many of those homeowners will soon discover that their insurance won't cover all of their rebuilding cost.

Replacement cost. This covers the cost of repairing or replacing your home, based on a set dollar amount. However, one of the problems with this coverage is that it often times does not reflect the increase in the cost of construction and labor since you took out your policy in your community. If your community is destroyed by a natural disaster, then that means that there could be higher demand for such construction and labor needs, and that will inevitably push up the cost of repairing and replacing your home.

Extended replacement cost. Here, the insurance company agrees to pay a certain percentage above the replacement cost to account for inflation. So, for instance, if your replacement cost coverage is $250,000, extended replacement cost coverage will pay up to 120% of that, or $300,000. However, even with that additional percentage of coverage afforded for purposes of assisting and paying for the replacement cost, if you have not adjusted your numbers in sometime, you may still fall short in the event of a catastrophic disaster.

Read more: floridainsurancelawyerblog.com.

June 12, 2011

Affidavit of Service Expert Witnesses

Affidavit of service expert witnesses may testify and write reports on service of process, legal notice, and related topics. The National Association of Professional Process Servers reports on their website:

Proposed Maryland Legislation Harmful To People and Threatens Legal Due Process

The National Association of Professional Process Servers (NAPPS), along with the Mid-Atlantic Association of Professional Process Servers (MAAPPS), have grave concerns about pending legislation that establishes rules that allow for people to be served legal documents by mail rather than in person.

Read more: napps.org.

June 12, 2011

Health Care Administration Expert Witnesses

Health care administration expert witnesses may write reports and opine on rehabilitation centers, managed care organizations, medical record review, and related topics. Here, Federal News Daily reports that Tricare, the health care program serving uniformed service members, retirees and their families worldwide has few options for increasing access to civilian providers.

Tricare Management Activity is severely limited in what it can do to expand beneficiaries' access to civilian health care providers, according to a report from the Government Accountability Office. In addition to national shortages, Tricare beneficiaries’ access also may be impeded in certain locations where there are insufficient numbers and types of civilian providers to cover the local demand.

Providers are generally leery of accepting Tricare patients because of the Tricare fee structure. Providers’ concern about Tricare’s reimbursement rates — which generally are set at Medicare rates — continues as a long-standing issue, according to the report, released June 2. The fee schedule has more recently been cited as the primary reason civilian providers will not accept Tricare Standard and Extra beneficiaries as patients, according to TMA’s surveys of civilian providers.

Read more: federaldaily.com.

June 11, 2011

Insurance Claims Expert Witnesses

Insurance claims expert witnesses may write reports and testify on property insurance, insurance regulations, and related topics. Recently, Business Insurance reported:

Japanese insurers have paid almost $2.27 billion to cover approximately 125,000 claims associated with earthquake damage to personal dwellings stemming from the March 11 tsunami and earthquake that devastated Japan. According to the General Insurance Association of Japan (GIAJ), the number of claims is expected to increase as efforts continue to restore heavily damaged areas of the country.

Coverage for dwelling claims, which have accounted for a large portion of Japan’s earthquake and tsunami-related claims thus far, are reinsured exclusively by the Japanese government. For this reason, foreign reinsurers will experience little if any exposure to these particular claims. The total insured property losses from the Japan earthquake and tsunami have so far been estimated at between $18 billion and $26 billion.

Read more: insurereinsure.com.

June 11, 2011

Process Service Expert Witnesses

Process service expert witnesses may opine on acceptance of service, affidavit of service, jurats, judicial summons, and more. The National Association of Professional Process Servers reports on their website that New York process servers were granted a partial restraining order on a new law:

The New York State Professional Process Servers Association (NYSPPSA) was granted a partial restraining order on March 21 to allow the Association and the City of New York to continue negotiations over new regulations for professional process servers within the city limits.

The association and its members remain hopeful that differences can be resolved amicably and to the satisfaction of all parties. Prior to the court filing, NYSPPSA and the City of New York had been negotiating in good faith and were making progress ahead of a March 21 deadline. NYSPPSA chose court action only after a request to extend that deadline was denied. In the event the matter cannot be resolved satisfactorily, further court proceedings were set for April 27.

Read more: napps.org.

June 10, 2011

Trucking Expert Witnesses & Crashworthiness

Trucking expert witnesses may write reports and testify on federal motor carrier safety regulations, truck maintenance, trucking and transportation rules, and related topics. Transport Topics reports that American Trucking Associations and the Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association have together written to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration asking the agency to begin researching how standards for crashworthiness for heavy trucks could benefit professional truck drivers.

“NHTSA has continuously developed crashworthiness standards for automobiles and light trucks, but to date has generally not applied crashworthiness standards to commercial trucks,” the two groups wrote to NHTSA chief David Strickland this week.

Read more: ttnews.com.

June 10, 2011

Commercial Design Expert Witnesses

Commercial design expert witnesses may write reports and testify on interior designs, space planning, green retrofits, and more. Here, BuildingDesign+Construction.com writes:

The U.S. Department of Energy announced in May the release of the first in a new series of Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) to aid architects and engineers in the design of highly energy-efficient office buildings. The 50% AEDG series will provide a practical approach to commercial buildings designed to achieve 50% energy savings compared to the commercial building energy code used in many areas of the country. This 50% AEDG for Small and Medium Office Buildings is the first in a series of four to be released in the coming months. These commercial building guides support President Obama’s goal to reduce energy use in commercial buildings 20% by 2020 and will help drive demand for energy-saving products made in the United States.

June 9, 2011

Environmental Toxicology Expert & Contaminants Clean Up

A state review of the historic Tumwater brewhouse property found that some ground on the old Olympia Brewery site is contaminated beyond levels allowed for its mixed-use zoning. George Heidgerken, an owner of the property, has applied for a voluntary program to clean up the contaminants, which include lead and arsenic, said Scott Rose, a unit manager for the Washington State Department of Ecology. Heidgerken said he has hired an environmental expert and that he wanted to rid the site of contaminants.

Read more: http://www.theolympian.com.

June 8, 2011

Sales Forecasting Expert Witnesses

Sales forecasting expert witnesses may testify on sales promotions, retail sales, sales revenues and more. Referenceforbusiness.com describes QUALITATIVE FORECASTING METHODS.

Qualitative forecasting techniques generally employ the judgment of experts in the appropriate field to generate forecasts. A key advantage of these procedures is that they can be applied in situations where historical data are simply not available. Moreover, even when historical data are available, significant changes in environmental conditions affecting the relevant time series may make the use of past data irrelevant and questionable in forecasting future values of the time series.

Read more: Forecasting http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Fa-For/Forecasting.html#ixzz1OXPlUsZp

June 7, 2011

Health Care Administration Expert Witnesses

Health care administration expert witnesses may opine on medical record administrators, health information managers, health services managers, and more. On its website, the American Health Information Management Association offers this information on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) which fast tracked the adoption of electronic health records (EHRs).

Ensuring patient information is protected and secure from any intrusion is a priority in health care. It is crucial for organizations to understand and implement the privacy and security controls needed to access health information while ensuring patient privacy. According to Healthcare IT, healthcare experts have identified the top seven trends in health information privacy for 2011.

1. Health information exchanges, many of which will be launched by inexperienced and understaffed organization

2. There will be increased fines and regulatory action by State Attorneys General and regulatory agencies, will force more attention on security and privacy

Read more: newsletters ahima.org.

June 7, 2011

Interior Design Expert Witnesses & Hospital Noise

Interior design expert witnesses may opine on residential designs, furnishings, and commercial designs. BuildingDesign+Construction.com writes:

Hospitals are noisier than ever. Worldwide, sound levels inside hospitals average 72 decibels during the day and 60 decibels at night, which far exceeds the standard of 40 decibels or less, set by the World Health Organization. Studies find that the clamor of modern medicine can harm both patients and staff. Unwanted sound wrecks sleep, raises stress levels, induces medical mistakes, and contributes to alarm fatigue, which occurs when monitors shriek so often they are ignored or turned off, causing safety issues.

In response, hospitals throughout Illinois and the U.S. are launching "quiet campaigns" that include eliminating intercom paging, replacing metal trash cans, installing sound-absorbing flooring and paneling, and dimming lights at night to remind staff to keep their voices down.

Read more: bdcnetwork.com.

June 6, 2011

Medical Records Expert Witnesses

Medical records expert witnesses may write reports and opine on rehabilitation centers, medical record review, physician credentialing, and related topics. Here, Federal News Daily reports Veterans Administration medical records show a decrease in hospital-acquired infections.

Over the past few years, Department of Veterans Affairs medical facilities have been drawn into the spotlight because of a small, but widely reported, number of medical slip-ups — such as improperly processed endoscopy equipment at one facility. But a new article in the New England Journal of Medicine spotlights VA for something far more positive — infection-control practices that marked a dramatic improvement in preventing hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

The VA initiative, now in its fourth year, reduced MRSA infections by more than 60 percent in VA intensive-care units across the nation, the article states. MRSA infections are a serious global health care issue and are difficult to treat because the bacteria are often resistant to many antibiotics.

Read more: federaldaily.com.

June 5, 2011

Commercial Design Expert Witnesses & Green Retrofits

Commercial design expert witnesses may write reports and testify on interior designs, space planning, green retrofits, and more. Here, BuildingDesign+Construction.com writes:

The City of Seattle sent letters to more than 800 large commercial property owners and managers today informing them about a new citywide program designed to help owners and managers assess and improve building energy efficiency and spur the market for building energy retrofits.

“Seattle’s buildings provide one of the greatest opportunities to generate energy savings and boost economic development for the city. This new program will help building owners take a key step toward increasing building energy efficiency, which, in turn, helps lower operating costs, makes buildings more competitive and creates good local jobs,” said Department of Planning and Development Director Diane Sugimura.

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, buildings consume more than 70 percent of the electricity generated in the U.S. and could be made 30 to 50 percent more energy efficient with currently available products and services. But many property owners and managers don’t know how well or poorly their buildings use energy or how their building’s energy performance compares to similar buildings.

Read more: bdcnetwork.com.

June 4, 2011

Reinsurance Expert Witnesses

Reinsurance expert witnesses may opine on reinsurance contracts, reinsurers, and reinsurance policies. Legaldictionary.com defines reinsurance:

A reinsurance contract is a contract of indemnity, meaning that it becomes effective only when the insurance company has made a payment to the original policyholder. Reinsurance provides a way for the insurance company to protect itself from financial disaster and ruin by passing on the risk to other companies. Reinsurance redistributes or diversifies the risk or threat associated with the business of issuing policies by allowing the reinsured to show more assets by reducing its reserve requirements. The reinsurance industry became more popular during the late 1990s and early 2000s because natural disasters and mass tort litigation resulted in large payouts by insurance companies. Because of the large size of the payments, some insurance companies became insolvent.

Read more: legaldictionary.com.

June 3, 2011

Trucking Expert Witnesses & Driver Fatigue

Trucking expert witnesses may write reports and testify on federal motor carrier safety regulations, truck maintenance, qualifications of truck drivers, and related topics. Transport Topics reports that the The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration will publish its revised hours-of-service rule by Oct. 28, not the July 26 deadline previously set by a court, it said in a court filing.

The agency submitted four studies on driver fatigue for public comment earlier this month, two of which were published in April, it said in a report to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit May 20. It then reopened the comment period for its proposal, which will now close June 8.

Read more: ttnews.com.

June 2, 2011

Medical Expert Witnesses & Florida Reform

Clincaladvisor.com reports that two new bills addressing malpractice reform issues have been passed by the Florida legislature.

Among the new provisions contained in HB 479 is the requirement that physicians (MDs or DOs) and dentists licensed in another state must obtain an expert witness certificate before providing expert testimony in Florida, and that experts witnesses (whether licensed in the state or those with an expert witness certificate) may be disciplined by the Boards of Medicine, Osteopathic Medicine, and Dentistry if they provide deceptive or fraudulent testimony.

Read more: clinicaladvisor.com.

June 1, 2011

Forensic Accounting Expert Witness Selection

In FRAUD FILES: Expert witness selection: substance over form, Tracy L. Coenen, CPA, CFF, writes:

These days, it’s not uncommon for organizations to exist simply to generate revenue. They may offer a “certificate,” but a close examination could reveal that it’s nothing more than a “credential” that someone can purchase. It is important to look at how a certificate or credential is conferred, and confirm that the expert indeed has demonstrated some level of skill and has earned it.

In the fields of fraud and forensic accounting, Certified in Financial Forensics (CFF), Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE), and Certified Valuation Analyst (CVA) are the gold standard for certifications, and have strict requirements for obtaining the credentials. These are obviously very valuable to your case.

On the other hand, there are certificates one can purchase if she or he already holds the designation of CFF, CFE, or CVA. (And I’m sure the same is true in other professions).


Read more: wislawjournal.com.